Having grown up in a culture where having food from a low fired vessels or earthenware none glazed pots were a natural custom. it was said the earthy pots were to contribute to the unique flavours to the food.
These low fired vessels were also recyclable and would be reintroduced into clay as grog to make new forms. Red terracotta clay was abundantly found in India, thus majority of pots and vessels were red in colour. with little to minimal decoration. 
Book- traditional pottery of India notes:
CLAY is an important part of everyday routine, houses to toys children played with were made from clay. 
Storage jars (food and water), farming tools, religious figures were constructed in clay. It is till date believe- humans themselves are made from mud, the materialistic things he interacts with are and the man eventually return to mud. full circle of life revolves around mud/clay.
* storage jars- useful as fired to low temperature, it absorbed moisture and helped keep the liquid within cool from heat outside.    

Traditional way of dining in Goa, India.

My recent visit to a Japanese restaurant. 

Now practiced way of serving Chai in India.  

Common use of metal objects, light weight, mass produces, low maintenance and considered to provide health benefits.  

My practice has always been around making tableware pieces or everyday functional objects. 
Commonly plain and simple in design I would challenge their surfaces with decoration like glaze experiments and pattern application using ceramic surface decoration skills. Some of these techniques are traditional like inlay or sgraffito and at times I develop my own unique method of decorating a surface like layering glazes. 
My aim for this project is to revive and celebrate declining ritual of having "chai". I wish to throw sets of chai cups, their form reflecting their roots but also investigating how to keep this tradition living by making it up to date with modern day culture. These chai cups are not just objects of change but will hold deeper meaning because they will echo the personality of the maker- exploring the surface of these objects to make them unique, tactile pieces that will allow the user to appreciate the ritual of drinking chai.  
Throwing Off the hump Technique- traditional method used in mass production, especially in India for the small Chai cups. I found this technique challenging this was because this chosen method isn't my preferred method of throwing. i found centring each individual pieces was easily manageable but getting the exact dimensions for each and every cup was difficult. Also, being able to get the exact same amount of clay every time was not possible and thus made each cup different from the other.  

Right: Throwing off the hump technique. Left: one piece at a time throwing. 

Left: Blindfolded throwing. Right: one piece at a time throwing 

Sketching ideas for the surface style and form shape: 
Being able to have visual or physical textures, patterns and feel to the surface will enhance the user experience, often when we touch something it making us feel more connected or present in the time. It also allows conversations to be build. 
Handmade Wooden formers used to get accurate and consistent shapes when throwing. 
Using coloured clay (marbled) to make the vessels interesting and unique. using traditional methods but adding my personal voice to these objects. ​​​​​​​
Chai is typically served into 100-250ml low fired red terracotta cups. Since these cups are low fired they can be recycled, so the custom of these chai cups being one off-pieces has carried on since decades. 
I need to consider shrinkage rate and how the end result will be smaller than the starting dimension. 
Slip Decoration - colours used red, brown and white. 
Attempting to make the exterior surface decorative by adding colours and patterns. Maybe, some will be textured surface other smooth with a coat of glaze on the top.
plastic stage
plastic stage
can be used without firing
can be used without firing
Handmade potter's tools - book about how making our own tools can be a way of adding personal expression within our work. 
This statement really felt fitting in my practice since my focus has been on exploring the surface of objects, it would be particularly useful to make my form a little more personal if they were made from handmade tools. 
Colours - cobalt oxide 5% for blue, black iron oxide 10% for dark brown.  
underglaze pencil tests.
underglaze pencil tests.
bisque fired pieces
bisque fired pieces
air dried underglaze pencil, stoneware fired
air dried underglaze pencil, stoneware fired
stoneware fired, left pieces- cone 015 fired  pencils on almington and ivory stoneware body
stoneware fired, left pieces- cone 015 fired pencils on almington and ivory stoneware body
Underglaze higher percentage colourant (cobalt and black iron) 15%- Almington and Ivorystoneware bodies. 
Left sample- unfired pencils- pigment response is stronger and clearly shows through under a glaze. When handling can break off easily.  
Middle- bisque fired (cone 06)- firm texture when applying onto surface. Colours are faint under glaze. 
Right- cone 015 fired. Soft texture during application. Colour response are just right. 
Cone 015 produces the best colour response both under glaze and without glaze. The fired temperature also makes the pencil comfortable to hold and draw with, without snapping off. 
Makers tools- turning/trimming tools. A simple yet important tool when polishing the forms after throwing. A sharp edge to the curved or straight tool is all that completes the pot on the wheel. 
Made from steel, need to cleaned and looked after well otherwise likely to rust is contact with water. 
I focused on making chai cups, working with different surface decoration techniques. 
Exploring making techniques-form throwing, throwing off a hump. 
Some glazed surfaces, picking glazes that reflect something different other than a still surface. 
Handmade tools to add interest and personal touch to the objects. ​​​​​​​
 These are Chai cups; they represent the everyday culture of India. The culture I have grown up into, drinking chai from low fired red terracotta cups, the experience and unique taste that has to offer. However, these Chai cups are not like the typically red cups with minimal/ no surface decoration. These cups are a response to evolving design process of chai cups. With my interest into surface exploration of patterns, motifs, textures and colours is what makes these cups exclusive and distinct. These objects are being created to represent both my practice and my cultural background, together to celebrate and enhance the experience of drinking chai. 
These objects are produced using traditional process of production-throwing, alongside creating my own pottery tools, which will add personal expression into my work. Plus, adding surface decoration using various techniques such as sgraffito, inlay, handmade stamps or oxide blending within the clay body to create a tactile and exciting surface. 
Chai cups are not just designed to be consumed chai into, they are forms inspired by the chai drinking ritual. Chai cups normally hold 100-250ml of liquid, and I wish to keep this original feature. I am also aware that not everyone is a chai fan, so these cups can be used as a regular drinking vessel.
My next steps, setting a scale to these objects, this will enable me to scale up or down as required. Glazes and the effects it has to offer.  
Experiment and Development: 
Starting off with traditional ways- 
Typical red clay chai cups, are one off pieces, they drink from and smashed and grounded as grog to be reintroduced into new clay and the cycle continues. 
They are smoke or pit fired objects and temperature is measured by somebody eyes or years of experience. Thus, to first experiment was to conduct a series of test samples fired at different temperatures to find the exact, that is able to hold the water without the form disintegrating from contact with water. 

Chai cup- before 

After being fired at 400*c. 

Within 9:30secs the entire form was broken down. 
Through this line of inquiry, for the next trial cups to be consistent in shape. This will help get accurate results. The walls of this particular form was thin ( vessels used form essential throwing with former) making difficult to judge weather its the thin walls that allow a quicker break down or the low fired temperature. 
Almington thrown cups, plus adding handbuilt nerikomi slabs onto thrown form. 
Challenge, adding slabs distorts the clean crisp, edges and uniform design. 
Nerikomi tests with terracotta n Almington clay. 
ANGLED GLAZE MELT TEST- to test the flow of the glaze, how runny or stiff the glaze gets when fired to appropriate temperature. 
However, the angle of the object has to be steep unlike my test sample. This helps get accurate information on how the glaze will react on a vertical surface. Yet a useful and informative technique to understand glaze behaviour. 
Glaze experiments- 
Clear stoneware over agatewares. Dark colour palette not that interesting.  ​​​​​​​
Crystal glaze- goes blue? 
Need further testing: this is because of the bone ash, iron and cobalt reacting with each other to create a combined effect.   
Crystal glaze on plain Almington body. 
Milky Way, sea shore, northern light effects. I really like the movement within the glaze and the surface quality it has to offer. 
Though the colours and textured effects are very unique, crystal glazes are said to be not food safe. crystal glazes during formation and cooling on microscopic level cracks the surface. This allows the food particles to get in and over time the built up of bacteria will be hazardous. Thus best to avoid. 
However, Crystalline glazes ? maybe ? 
Rutile crystalline glaze- This glaze is the most intriguing glaze. Two samples on the right are pieces that are a singular glaze over almington and ivorystoneware clay bodies. As already there is a difference, looks like with the excess to the iron from the almington body the glaze responds to being blue. The contrast on the surface is making it appear unique and eye catching. However, with no iron present in the ivorystoneware body it reacts to being white and pale pink specks which is a subtle yet interesting surface.. 
To further investigate this glaze- layering over a white and black glaze to see the responce. Left two samples, have a black and white shiny glaze under and the rutile crystal glaze applied over the top. which results with two completely unique surfaces. 
Over the black tenmuku glaze, the surface is very blue/green. This is from the iron in the black tenmuku plus the body and the rutile. Making this visually textured surface. This reminds me of the Chinese investigation of glazes using purely iron oxide to get ranges of coloured glazes like celadons, blues and hues of browns and greys. 
Second to left sample- almington body with tin shiny glaze under crystal glaze. The whole object was dipped into tin glaze but the crystal glaze was applied till the rim. On careful observation its starting to react as a grey surface. But i think the tin content need to be higher (currently 8%) for a complete white surface. Sample- The iron specks from the body showing through interferes with the already complex glaze and ruins the effect of it. 

Grey-Blue glaze on ALM AND IVS clay. 

Failed attempts: 
This particular glaze didn't work out to be great in the surface. This is because the glaze was thick and i added water to make the application process easier. This resulted in the coat of glaze on the surface wasn't sufficient. Hence, the water in the glaze has burned off leaving patchy glaze areas and clear uneven areas of application. The surface of these objects are smooth/Matt but the appearance of these objects hold a vey metallic look and maybe thats the reason why i feel, it isn't the ideal surface to have on functional objects. 
I would have consider this patchy surface for the exterior on the vessels. To replicate metalwares.   
ACTING ON FEEDBACK- Former introduced-thrown objects. 
Starting off with 200g of clay working up to 400g. 
Keeping a single feature consistent within the cups- base all 5cm. Also still testing the overall Shape of the object. 
Rounded shapes ( right- 1 or 2nd design) are that provide a character to the objects. It’s not plainly conical shaped but the trim and and rounded body makes it easier to grip the vessel. 
Personally, from these tests i like the bottom half of the vessel to be spaciously tall, making it easier for the user to grip onto. The slightly wider and smaller rim gives it the traditional tea cup look but also a fresh design. 
Things to consider- clay shrinks. 
Combining multiple colours makes the surface of the objects complicated. Through am always careful to blend contrasting colours so they don’t clash. The simple Aggate pattern looks best with lighter and max 2 colours. 

Bone dry stage. Colours are strong and vibrant. 

Using one choice of colour and blending in 50% of total clay. 
Colours used- black nickel oxide 5%.
Black iron oxide 10%, attempting to create a terracotta clay colour. Since terracotta clay is usually low fired and starts bubbling at high temperatures.
Almington ( has to be soft) blended with ivorystoneware clay. Gives a very natural sand appearance.
Chromuim oxide 2% goes to a very lime/mint green colour. I prefer the look and touch of the unglazed surface. 
Last, piece was a experiment to see the black nickel blended with ivorystoneware clay, to give black colour. Not blended further with plain clay.   
Black slip experiments. On thin application goes blue ( not intentional). 
3different styles- brushed on plain surface, brushed outside on sgraffito surface and marbled with black and white slip.  All sample are in ivorystoneware clay for brighter colour response. 

Left- fine grounded pieces into tin shiny. 

Right- fine grounded pieces into Cornish stone (Matt finish).  

Glaze pieces added into in ball mill, to ground into a fine powder which will be mixing up into a glaze. 

Tin shiny + glazed shards. On both almington and ivorystoneware bodies. 

Much to my disappointment, no hints or speckles of the crushed glazed pieces were showing through. The surface is textured with fine particles of the clay but no colour. Possibly for the colours to show through there has to me more glaze or Chucky pieces should be added rather then powder form. 

Old glazed pot shards being reintroduced within new clay. 
Was hoping for a more confetti effect. With chunkier glaze shards added to the glaze in hopes for more colour response onto the surface. A new challenge was faced, when dipping the vessel into the glaze, the fine particles would well blended within the glaze would adhere to the surface. The chunkier pieces would sink at the bottom. So i attempted to sprinkle the thicker pieces over the wet glazed surface. But some would not attach or when handling would snap off.  This suggested- the glaze need to be thicker and so does the glazed shards. Making a equal consistency for the object to grip both glaze and chunks. 
Milk glazing- this provides with a brown/ dark surface based of how much sugar in present in the milk. 
Usually, the process is conducted by heating the pot/vessel, dunking into milk for 2/3mins, steam drying and slow firing it to desired temperatures. 

Semi skimmed milk used as a glaze- before. 

Left 1min,5min+10mins. 

After- stoneware fired. 

The colours on the semi-skimmed milk were not as pigmented as expected, which as disappointing. It is possible this is because I applied semi-skimmed milk. Which is watered down and this caused the subtlety in the results. 
Maybe consider using whole milk?
Research- often done with unpasteurised milk (none processed milk) thicker consistency works best as a glaze and results are more interesting than normal shop bought milk.  

Whole Milk- before 

After- stoneware fired. 

Whole milk was not a success either. The difference between whole milk and semi-skimmed milk were very little. I would say they appear identical. The almington clay does pick up brown hints. Gradually increasing for longer dipped samples. 
Surprising, ivorystoneware, white surface didn’t pick up any pigment. Not even specks of browns. Which is shocking. 
I guess the best results will either be at lower temperatures or with unpasteurised milk.  
Next step- Using Chai as a glaze- will the colours shows through ? 
Will additions like ginger, cardamom and tea leaves have an effect onto the surface. 

Left- with sugar chai. Right- without sugar( brown colour from drying out)

Brighter and warmer colour tones when wet and gradually as they dry, they fade into dark brown colour ranges.
Will the colour remain the same after being fired ? 

Left-with sugar samples. Right- without sugar. 

Again similar response to the milk tests. Not was i was expecting, the hints of brown seem to be appearing on almington clay and nothing on the white surface. I really don’t seem to understand why that’s happening!
Subtracting the sugar did nothing different either. 
Re-glazing already once fired objects. 
Challenges faced= since it already has a glaze applied on the surface. Less glaze is absorbed at the second attempt. The glaze adhering on the surface is very little and the possibility of anything interesting happening is unlikely but would be interesting investigation. 
IDEA= The above tests with chai and milk were to get some effects or colour response. But even though the results were disappointing. What if I started re-creating the original colours of chai through glaze making. Using chai making process and the different stages as a inspiration for the colours and textures on the surface. Boiling of milk, adding of ingredients, adding of tea leaves and fusion of all the spice to cook a delicious beverage. Since the focus is on the chai making, i will continue to make cups but on a larger scale. Do i look at other dishes to get inspiration for other types of forms? What’s on the inside is reflected on the out? 
Cups with variety of surface textures and visual effects. 
Blue/turquoise Glaze- still, not much movement within the glaze.  
Overlaying glazes to get a interesting, flowing, movement surface. The rim on the exterior does exactly what i intended. There’s movement in the surface through shades of colours compared to the interior of the bowl, which is single glaze coat.
Glazed with rutile crystal glaze- pale, transparent glaze. I would use this glaze over coloured/dark surfaces to add interest and make the glaze stand out. 
The exterior was inspired by rope making- one of the crafts practiced in Goa, India. The idea was to create regional uniqueness to the objects I make. 
But maybe these connections remain subtle, keeping focus on celebration of everyday rituals- drinking chai. 
I prefer the rounded base - fit comfortably when handling. Also would provide a curved surface for the glaze, allowing interesting effects to adhere onto. 
Tea set
Making a set that captures movement and showcases a fit/flow of a glaze onto these vessels. Inspired by chai making, fusion of ingredients. Celebration of chai drinking and its making process. 
I would like to be able to have larger objects to represent the movement and flow I am seeking with a glaze. I wouldn't say I am keeping the idea of making chia cups, but rather using the chai a starting point to investigate- colour, textures and movement. Being able to transfer these characteristics over onto my glaze mixing ability. Keeping the colour pallet limited to the warm colours- using iron based oxides. using these colours to develop interesting blends and maybe even blue's and greens. 
Investigating matt, glossy, satin or even dry(on the outside) surface. Blending various colours and raw materials to achieve the inspired by chai looks. 
Celebration of Chai:
- colour, textures and movement. 
- Glimpse of the making so far. 
- Showcasing my practice. ​​​​​​​
Glaze experimentation: 

BEFORE: test of individual glaze materiel. 

AFTER: fired @1260c/ cone 9/10.

Testing the materials at bisque/ 1000c, Earthenware/ 1140c and Stoneware/ 1280c. 

Individually being able to see how each ingredients react at that particular temperature provides me with a better understanding on how the glazes work inside the kiln and what ingredient makes the glaze melt more or on the contrary high amount of a material makes it dry. 
Crystal glaze- 
Appears as though ingredients are being mixed or in the process. referring back to my chai boiling stage. the blend and fusion of ingredients. 
Dry surface on the outside and shiny on the inside. 
The iron specks add to the stone and raw natural look. 
shiny surface on the inside ensures its food safe. however, on this particular piece there seems be ben a lot of pinholes- orange peel surface. not recommended for eating from. 
Vanadium and Titanium glaze- 
on the outside because vanadium is classed to be toxic material in high content. 
i like the simplicity of this set but doesn’t reflect any interesting colours or textures within the glaze. The overlap between the two glaze has created a beautiful definition but needs to be explored further. 
But since this glaze is not food safe maybe I'll stay away from this particularly glaze but experiment with overlapping other glazes to see the effects. 
CHAI JUGS- glaze experiments
- using two types of glazes, plain white on inside and texture one on exterior. 
- second one has one textured glaze throughout the piece. making it one. 
I personally really like the one glaze over the surface, it give a finished look rather than the two different one makes it appear incorrect/incomplete. I feel i should have dipped the white glaze to the neck of the jug making it an intended/uniform application rather than what appears to be rushed. ​​​​​​​

Pouring test:

Glaze testers
sprayed the glaze, Jug on the left has been overlayed with two types of glazes but the one on the right has been glazed over with single. Honestly, both of these glazes and application was a final. the vertical surface and very thin application on the glaze has ruined the surface of these forms. 
The inside of these vessels seem to have been glaze evenly and it showing even coat result rather then patchy (like the one next to it) 
Mustard yellow/Orange glaze- using the colourants iron oxide and titanuim dioxide. 
Appears as though the glaze wants to be applied really thick to have a strong/ bright yellow. The background and thinly applied areas tend to get brown. However, i like the effect it has to offer of dark and light contrast. the thicker also capture drippy movement. 
Would be interesting to see this glaze over the top of other glazes and  how it appears then. 

Yellow glaze and blue green glaze over the rim. 

White/Zerconuim glaze splattered on the inside. 

Yellow glaze over the top of zerconuim. 

The yellow over the top of white dulls the colours, makes it more paler/ pink colour.  
Throwing large objects:
A large object will offer me a larger surface to work with and will be a good model to showcase my glazes, the movement within it. 
Challenges: building height when pulling up the walls of the pot. it important for the walls to be even in thickness during the drying stage but also when people handle these objects the thin area is likely to break off first. its also important the piece isn't bottom heavy or else people are unlikely to use it as everyday objects. 
Attempting to throw different shaped objects. 
I really like bowls as an object, they can hold liquid plus dry food. Bowls that I have seen in Indian cuisine are multiple small metal bowls, severed along with a plate underneath (thali) But i propose a bowl shape also because it always the shape any food is cooked into, the bowls I am making are very much East Asian inspired, tall and wide with foot ring at base.  
Make a tea set, directly connecting the chai and the holder together. The inside of the cup reflected on the outside. 
BOWLS AND CHAI- Chai is typically made in a (handi) steel vessel- bowl shaped form. And later transferred into small cups. Keeping the original form can be a celebration on the process and drink.  

Attempting to throw a double walled form, this process is so when handling an object the heat is not felt on the exterior of the vessel. considering making a Chai tea set ( jug to hold chai and cups). Hot Chai being in the jug will definitely transmit heat across. Hence, the idea of having double walled jug. Having two walls means the weight of the object is doubled and makes the vessels wide in size. 
Solution: make the wall of the vessel really thin or consider only part of the vessel (top or bottom) to have a double wall. The reason for having a double wall is so the hot beverage doesn’t transmit the heat on the exterior of the surface and the user doesn’t burn their fingers. 
Ideas for bowl design- thoughts on with or without footring. 
Decision: with a footring- this is best for glazing and is functional necessity when handling and using. It doesn't make the vessel stick on a wet surface   
I feel I am keen towards throwing rounder/large bowls that reflects the original form the chai is made in. The glazes used are inspired by the Chai process and the combination of two are a celebration of cooking chai. The bowls will hold the colour and textures of the journey.
Glazes that capture movement, flow and colours inspired by the Chai process. The rusty brown along with green and white coming through adds the feeling of boiling within the piece. 
Layering two glazes over each other- 
Sample 1- Iron green glaze. thin applicaton with ​​​​​​​
Sample 2- Black Tenmuku glaze + crystal glaze over the top.
Interesting how the achieved surface has been simply by adding two different glazes over one and other. High amounts Iron with other glaze materials such as bone ash or present cobalt oxide can produce hues of blue. 
Bloating on the surface of this bowl is from firing Almington clay to high tempterature (1280c). the gasses being released from being burnt makes these air pockets inside the clay, leaving behind an uneven surface. To some extend this surface is aesthetically pleasing but since these are functional wares, not the recommended surface especially liquid based dishes. 
2 glazes layered above each other. one is high in iron content whereas the other has to be a white/Matt glaze. which gives the effect below. ​​​​​​​
Magnesium matt glaze over the top + red glaze. 
This appears very much like i would imagine ash glazes or reduction fired glaze surface to look like. 
Red glaze + cornish stone glaze over the top. 
Interesting to see the same base glaze recipe but different. White/Matt glaze over the top, has such a change in colour outcome.  
 Single glaze- Red iron glaze on its own without the white matte glaze over the top (oil spot glaze)
Oil spots appearing on the surface, the dark drown colour isn't as good as the above colour response. But this glaze effects is very much like the chai textures. 

Brushed application=patchy/ uneven glaze. 

Poured inside= even and uniform surface.  

7% Illmenite oxide blend:
Has a gas kiln effect, stone grey/blue colour. 
Smooth surface but textured appearance.   
Colours that reflect chai or its movement on the surface, hinting the Chai process-
using Chai making video as a reference.
Series of experiment on Almington and Ivorystoneware body- oxides used Titanuim dioxide, rutile, Illmenite, Manganese, Red Iron, Black Iron, Yellow Iron and Yellow occer. 
Ivorystoneware body + 7% Rutile in glaze. 
Dribble effect that reflects back to the boiling stages within chai process. 
If adding a foot on a pot, do it properly with deep wells for the glaze to sit in but this generally useful when dipping entire pot into glaze. 
Have clean/ tidy base!
Bloating effect on Almington clay:

Not a shiny but matt/satin surface. Gaze definitely captures movement and colours but not a ideal surface for food eaten from. 

Unpredictable ALM clay, seem to be bloating even after throughly wedging it. The gas pockets spoil the entire look of the form. 

Altering glaze recipes: matt to shiny surface. 
Base recipe is a very dry surface. possible seek for a shiny base to add the following oxide to. 
OR test further in increments alter a variable at a time. this will allow a deeper knowledge on glaze behaviour. 
Playing around with type of finish qualities. 
I would like to keep the raw body of the clay. allowing people to interact with the natural surface. linking back to the terracotta vessels used in Goa, India to cook food from. The raw, low fired and none-glazed surface quality is to contribute to the earthy flavours enjoyed by the people.  
Bloating from ALM clay.
Bloating from ALM clay.
overlapping glazes- yellow glaze+ grey-glue over the top.
overlapping glazes- yellow glaze+ grey-glue over the top.
's' cracks being formed if object not dried evenly.
's' cracks being formed if object not dried evenly.
Illmenite 10%+ grey blue glaze overlapped.
Illmenite 10%+ grey blue glaze overlapped.
mix of glaze creating interesting combination textures
mix of glaze creating interesting combination textures
Black tenmoku Glaze- 
ALM + IVS clay bodies.
1) 1% red iron oxide.
2) 2% red iron oxide.- should give celadon/green colour.
3) 9% red iron oxide- suggested for black colour. 
No greens showing on 1-2% iron. 9% is giving greens/browns. Possibly consider using Black iron( stronger colourant). 
9% red iron oxide, probably not strong enough colourant for a dark colour and 100ml water not more than that. Apply thicker coating. 
current tests are giving more greens/yellow colour over a white background. Tested on ALM- dark brown to rust like colours on thinner areas. Overall good base, shiny/glossy (food safe). 

Crank clay body.

Black Tenmoku glaze over the top of Zerconuim. 
Outcome turned out to be very much like a celadon glaze reaction, which was unexpected. The glaze I have mixed up only asked for 9% Red iron oxide, which for w Black tenmoku glaze seems very weak and probably would need more of. Especially now after many experiments. 
Best to conduct a increment experiment with this glaze base and Red iron and Black iron oxide to see what gives stronger/dark colours. 
Black tenmoku + rutile crystalline glaze sprayed over the top:
Beautiful textured rust/black tea colours on the surface. 
The break from one colour into the other reminds me of the colour change after adding tea leaves, when making chai (watch video). 
Highlighting making of the chai- its colours, texture and flow through glazes. 
the making is not something we see and revealing this will be a celebration of the drink. Apply these to a large bowl form to link back to the original method of making chai, in a large vessel. 
outcome= series of  bowls each individually inspired by the chai process but together show the stages of making the beverage.   
Throwing with 2/3kg of clay to make large bowls- serving bowls.
Fired to 1240c temperature:
Having tested on both the clay types and lower temp then regular(1280c) I can refine to the type of surface quality I'm after. the Rutile glaze seems to have pitted on the surface, this could be because of a thick application or it needs to be fired to 1280c for the glaze to fully mature and heal when cooling. 
Firing to a slightly lower temperature did make the other two glazes pop in colour and didn't pool at the base but rather was a good hold quality. however, i seem to more keen on the large objects to a higher temperature, this because the extra time will allow the glaze it pool at the base on some objects and i quite enjoy that visual effect.   
red iron
red iron
Glazes bowls set of 3 from ivorystoneware clay, fired to 1280c:
Rutile 7
Ilmenite 5%
Red iron + Cornish stone sprayed. 
I have particularly selected these glazes because I find these closely resembling chai process through the colours. The rutile will provide a white/pale colour which shows the stillness of the milk when added. Red iron glaze represents the break from black to milk tea, the fusion of the two and finally the illmenite one will be showcasing the beverage towards the end. The boiled chai, the movement within the liquid are effects will be transferred onto the surface through glaze. 
Scalloped edges:
The reason i have picked this style of finish, is because i find this patterns can relate both to Goa, India and chai. Chai when prepared is boiled and often leaves behind a bubbly/foam edge in the vessel. This design is a careful and subtle representation of that. Scallop design can be taken as a direct location reference, since Goa is situated on the west coast of India and is knows for its beaches and seafood. 
Another interesting connection is. The scallop designs are a popular motifs used in Japan as it is believed to provide strength and good luck. This beautiful message with a pattern makes any piece, a decorative and meaningful object. 
Stacked Bowls:
The reason for going forward with stacked bowls was that the glazes were a representation of the ‘making journey’ of the Chai process. The stacked bowls provided the wholesome feeling of together, the different glazed pieces stacked together to form a whole like the chai process- made up a individual steps to complete a single beverage. 
The stacked bowls are a bit of a hit and miss- i have made sure i throw my forms according to dimensions but with ceramics being careful can be rewarding and disappointing. Things shrink and warp during firing and this affects the whole piece. But with trial ands errors it can be accomplished. My current challenge is that the the large pieces weigh a bit much, this is a requirement for a sturdy/ strong bowl that will hold servings for 4 this impacts the stack of the bowls, adding pressure on the below bowls overall creating a heavy stack. . 
Bowls will not be stacked but be displayed together as a set, since these bowls with glazes are fragile and could possibly be damaged when stacked together by each others weight.
Minor issue: 
Air pocket that was hidden in the piece- caused tiny explosion in the kiln chipping off the base of the bowl. This rare possibility when throwing with large amounts of clay. 
Final Outcome: 
Back to Top